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APA Citation Guide: Home

Help with citing using APA guidelines.

APA Format

To cite sources within your text, use parenthetical references. Example: (Doe, 2004) Doe = author, 2004 = year of publication (APA 6.11 - 6.21).

The list of sources at the end of the text is called "References" (APA 6.22). APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent of 1/2" if longer than one line (APA 2.11).

APA format does have a fairly strict layout of sections and headings—see APA chapter 2 for details about required structure.

However, APA format does not require a table of contents, list of sources you did not cite, or some other elements that appear in other writing styles. These should only be added at your instructor's request. 

APA Tutorial

View a tutorial of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. at the following website:

Why Cite?

Ideas are valuable, and stealing them is a serious academic problem (not to mention a violation of the 8th commandment). Citations are the best way to show where you learned your ideas and give others the credit they deserve for sharing their valuable ideas. Citations also provide a roadmap for others to track down and discover the sources you accessed for themselves. 

However, we know citations can be cumbersome to learn. That is why we provide a number of tools to help you give credit where it is due. Hopefully this guide will help you learn about proper citations and enable you to use them correctly.


Citation guidelines and examples in this guide are derived from the following. Find it in our library at REF 808.027 A512p.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American
         Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Whenever you see "APA #.#," that is pointing you to a chapter section within the APA Manual.

Basic APA Reference Format

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