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Turabian Citation Guide: Home

Help with citing using Turabian guidelines.

Citation Note

To cite a reference using the Turabian guidelines at WJU, place a superscript number at the end of the sentence in which you refer to that source, then cite the source of that quotation in a correspondingly numbered note as a  footnote at the bottom of the page.

For a more in-depth explanation of Turabian-styled notes, please refer to Turabian 16.3.


Unless your instructor tells you otherwise, papers that use the Turabian guideline at WJU include both notes and a bibliography listing all sources cited in the notes.

A bibliography is a list of all sources used arranged alphabetically by the last name of the author, editor, or whoever/whatever is first in each entry. You may also include in your bibliography sources that were important to your thought process but that you did not specifically mention or quote in your paper.

Bibliography entries have a hanging indentation: the first line is flush left, and all following lines are indented the same space as paragraphs.

For a more in-depth explanation of Turabian-styled bibliographies, please refer to Turabian 16.2.

Why Cite?

Ideas are valuable, and stealing them is a serious academic problem (not to mention a violation of the 8th commandment). Citations are the best way to show where you learned your ideas and give others the credit they deserve for sharing their valuable ideas. Citations also provide a roadmap for others to track down and discover the sources you accessed for themselves. 

However, we know citations can be cumbersome to learn. That is why we provide a number of tools to help you give credit where it is due. Hopefully this guide will help you learn about proper citations and enable you to use them correctly.


Please note that the Turabian style is essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition, with slight changes for student writers' needs. Citation guidelines and examples in this guide are derived from the following. Find it in our library at REF 808.09 T929m 2007.

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations:
         Chicago Style for Students and
 Researchers. 7th ed. Chicago: University of
         Chicago Press,

Whenever you see "Turabian #.#," that is pointing you to a chapter section within the Turabian Manual.

For additional help, visit:

Basic Turabian Format

Subject Guide

Bailey Gillespie
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